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Sukha Soma Group

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Anwar Bolshakov
Anwar Bolshakov

BKS Shorts Version 2.0

The objective of this technique is to provide the user with a control near the beginning of the page that takes the user to a conforming alternate version of the Web page where the link text alone of each link is sufficient to determine its purpose out of context.

BKS Shorts Version 2.0

Some users prefer to have links that are self-contained, where there is no need to explore the context of the link. Other users find including the context information in each link to be repetitive and to reduce their ability to use a site. Among users of assistive technology, the feedback to the working group on which is preferable has been divided. This technique allows users to pick the approach that works best for them. Users who need or prefer potentially longer but complete link text use this version.

This technique provides the alternate version for the current page view. It is also possible, and in some cases would be advisable, to save this preference in a cookie or server-side user profile, so that users would only have to make the selection once per site and would automatically be taken to their preferred version.

Now the big version that started out with a clear vision, one or a few great ideas, suddenly gets bogged down by feature freeloaders. When the 2.0 train is already hauling those heavy weights, surely no one will notice this little thing or that little thing.

There are two translated and adapted versions of the WHODAS 2.0 into Portuguese. The first was translated to Brazilian Portuguese in a female population in the postpartum period,[13] and the other was translated to European Portuguese using a population suffering from musculoskeletal disabilities.[14] Although the psychometric properties of the original instrument were well established in English, it is necessary to determine such properties for the version in Brazilian Portuguese. Taking into account the concepts of content and construct validity,[15] the aim of the current study is to assess both in the Brazilian Portuguese version of the WHODAS 2.0 in a population of Brazilian women in reproductive age who had experienced previous pregnancies with and without severe maternal morbidity to assess the psychometric properties of this instrument for this specific population. This is necessary before recommending its routine use for assessing functioning possibly associated with pregnancy and maternal outcome.

This is a validation study of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the WHODAS 2.0 among women admitted during pregnancy or the postpartum period to a tertiary referral maternity in the southeast region of Brazil from July 2008 to June 2012. This hospital is specialized in high-risk pregnancies, and has an obstetric intensive care unit (ICU) for cases of severe maternal morbidity.

The 36-item version of the WHODAS 2.0 intends to measure activity function and participation in daily life activities in the 30 days preceding its application. It includes six domains: domain 1 (D1)- cognition (six questions): evaluates communication and thinking activities, including concentration, memory, problem-solving, learning and comprehension; domain 2 (D2)- mobility (five questions): evaluates activities such as standing up, moving around inside the house, going outside the house, and walking a long distance; domain 3 (D3)- self-care (four questions): evaluates hygiene, getting dressed, eating and staying alone; domain 4 (D4)- relationship with people (five questions): evaluates the interactions with others and the difficulties that may be encountered due to adverse health conditions; domain 5 (D5)- life activities (eight questions): evaluates the difficulty with daily life activities (household chores, leisure, work and school); and domain 6 (D6)- participation (eight questions): assesses social dimensions, such as joining in community activities, barriers and obstacles in the world surrounding the woman being interviewed, and other problems, such as maintenance of personal dignity. The answer options for each question include: no difficulty, little, moderate, severe or extreme difficulty. The total score ranges from 0 to 100, and a higher score was indicative of a greater limitation in daily life.[11] [12] All women were invited to answer the 36 questions, but those who had no job or were no longer in school could only answer 32 questions of this version.

Initially, the mean scores and standard deviations were calculated per domain, for all the women answering the 32 questions, as well as for those answering all the 36 questions of the questionnaire. The internal consistency was verified using Cronbach's α. The psychometric properties assessed included content validity and construct validity. The factorial structure was examined by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).[18] In the EFA, factorial analysis was applied according to the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy, and the method used for extraction was the Varimax method with Kaiser Normalization.[19] Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess the content and correlations between all of the WHODAS 2.0 domains. Values above the cut-off point of 0.7 were considered as good correlations. P values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The software used was SPSS version 20.0.

We validated the Brazilian Portuguese version of WHODAS 2.0 that had already been translated and cross-culturally adapted from the original English version in another study.[13] When applied to a population of women during the reproductive age, it showed appropriate psychometric properties and better results than the European Portuguese version.[14]

Compared with other studies of cross-cultural adaptation and construct validity, our results were similar to the Chinese version applied to elderly adults or institutionalized patients.[21] In the Spanish version, internal validation showed a higher Cronbach's α value for patients with schizophrenia.[22] In contrast, it ranged from 0.68 to 0.91 for elderly individuals with hearing loss in the United States,[23] while a recent study investigating patients with chronic morbid conditions showed values from 0.70 to 0.97.[24] Therefore, the internal validation of the WHODAS 2.0 has been performed in different cultures and populations. We did not know the reasons why the versions perform differently according to different cultures and populations; however, we can hypothesize that the understanding of how illness and disability are perceived by the respondants is involved in this result. In addition, we cannot make an exact parallel with previous available information, considering that, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time this instrument is applied in a female population regarding the reproductive process.

This is version 2009-Jan-02 of the Info-ZIP license. The definitive version of this document should be available at indefinitely and a copy at

This is version 2007-Mar-4 of the Info-ZIP license.The definitive version of this document should be available at indefinitely and a copy at

The initial commit of package "" is an adapted version of code developed in the context of the Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) of the "Gaia" project of the European Space Agency (ESA).

The initial commit of the class "org.apache.commons.math3.special.BesselJ" is an adapted version of code translated from the netlib Fortran program, rjbesl by R.J. Cody at Argonne National Laboratory (USA). There is no license or copyright statement included with the original Fortran sources.

The BracketFinder (package org.apache.commons.math3.optimization.univariate) and PowellOptimizer (package org.apache.commons.math3.optimization.general) classes are based on the Python code in module "" (version 0.5) developed by Travis E. Oliphant for the SciPy library ( )

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