Mechanical Behavior Of Materials : Engineering ...
How do engineering materials deform when bearing mechanical loads? To answer this crucial question, the book bridges the gap between continuum mechanics and materials science. The different kinds of material deformation (elasticity, plasticity, fracture, creep, fatigue) are explained in detail. The book also discusses the physical processes occurring during the deformation of all classes of engineering materials (metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites) and shows how these materials can be strengthened to meet the design requirements. It provides the knowledge needed in selecting the appropriate engineering material for a certain design problem. The reader will thus learn how to critically employ design rules and thus to avoid failure of mechanical components.
Mechanical behavior of materials : engineering ...
The 3.032x series provides an introduction to the mechanical behavior of materials, from both the continuum and atomistic points of view. At the continuum level, we learn how forces and displacements translate into stress and strain distributions within the material. At the atomistic level, we learn the mechanisms that control the mechanical properties of materials. Examples are drawn from metals, ceramics, glasses, polymers, biomaterials, composites and cellular materials.
Part 3 covers viscoelasticity (behavior intermediate to that of an elastic solid and that of a viscous fluid), plasticity (permanent deformation), creep in crystalline materials (time dependent behavior), brittle fracture (rapid crack propagation) and fatigue (failure due to repeated loading of a material).
The field of strength of materials (also called mechanics of materials) typically refers to various methods of calculating the stresses and strains in structural members, such as beams, columns, and shafts. The methods employed to predict the response of a structure under loading and its susceptibility to various failure modes takes into account the properties of the materials such as its yield strength, ultimate strength, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio. In addition, the mechanical element's macroscopic properties (geometric properties) such as its length, width, thickness, boundary constraints and abrupt changes in geometry such as holes are considered.
The theory began with the consideration of the behavior of one and two dimensional members of structures, whose states of stress can be approximated as two dimensional, and was then generalized to three dimensions to develop a more complete theory of the elastic and plastic behavior of materials. An important founding pioneer in mechanics of materials was Stephen Timoshenko.
In the mechanics of materials, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. The field of strength of materials deals with forces and deformations that result from their acting on a material. A load applied to a mechanical member will induce internal forces within the member called stresses when those forces are expressed on a unit basis. The stresses acting on the material cause deformation of the material in various manners including breaking them completely. Deformation of the material is called strain when those deformations too are placed on a unit basis.
A material's strength is dependent on its microstructure. The engineering processes to which a material is subjected can alter this microstructure. The variety of strengthening mechanisms that alter the strength of a material includes work hardening, solid solution strengthening, precipitation hardening, and grain boundary strengthening and can be quantitatively and qualitatively explained. Strengthening mechanisms are accompanied by the caveat that some other mechanical properties of the material may degenerate in an attempt to make the material stronger. For example, in grain boundary strengthening, although yield strength is maximized with decreasing grain size, ultimately, very small grain sizes make the material brittle. In general, the yield strength of a material is an adequate indicator of the material's mechanical strength. Considered in tandem with the fact that the yield strength is the parameter that predicts plastic deformation in the material, one can make informed decisions on how to increase the strength of a material depending its microstructural properties and the desired end effect. Strength is expressed in terms of the limiting values of the compressive stress, tensile stress, and shear stresses that would cause failure. The effects of dynamic loading are probably the most important practical consideration of the strength of materials, especially the problem of fatigue. Repeated loading often initiates brittle cracks, which grow until failure occurs. The cracks always start at stress concentrations, especially changes in cross-section of the product, near holes and corners at nominal stress levels far lower than those quoted for the strength of the material.
The sequence of courses in the Colloids, Polymers and Surfaces (CPS) designated minor provides an opportunity to explore the science and engineering of fine particles and macromolecules as they relate to complex fluids and interfacially engineered materials. These topics are very relevant to technology and product development in industries that manufacture pharmaceuticals, coatings and paints, pulp and paper, biomaterials, surfactants and cleaning products, cosmetics and personal care products, food, textiles and fibers, nanoparticles, polymer/plastics, composite materials.
Many of the technological changes in recent decades-notably the rise of digital data processing-has been made possible by continuing advances in the performance of electronic devices. These advances include continuous improvement in microprocessor performance, optical communication bandwidth, and magnetic disk storage capacity. Other new areas of innovation include the development of micromechanical systems and the development of flat panel display technology. These advances depend on interactions between engineers from many different disciplines. In particular, there is a strong interaction between device design and materials engineering and processing.
The Electronic Materials Minor is intended to provide students with a firm basis for the application of electronic materials in advanced systems. This minor is well suited for students who intend to pursue careers in the electronics industry (included, but not limited to, semiconductor integrated circuit design and manufacturing, and magnetic storage engineering). The minor also provides an excellent preparation for students interested in pursing graduate work in MSE, ECE, or Applied Physics.
An understanding of mechanical behavior is important to both the development of new materials and the selection of appropriate materials for many applications. The mechanical behavior of materials is best investigated and understood by integrating solid mechanics with the microstructural basis of flow and fracture. The purpose of this minor is to allow a formal basis for students to pursue an integrated approach to the mechanical behavior of materials.
An ASTM International member since 1972, Dowling serves on a number of E08 subcommittees and has recently been member-at-large of the E08 Executive Subcommittee. Professionally he has worked in the areas of fatigue, fracture, and deformation of engineering materials and components. Specific topics of interest include life prediction for irregular loading histories, plasticity effects on notches and in crack growth, and standard test methods for low cycle fatigue and for fatigue crack growth. He has also consulted on applications to engineering design, troubleshooting, and failure analysis.
MATSCIE 220. Introduction to Materials and ManufacturingPrerequisite: Chem 130 or Chem 210. (4 credits)Introduction to materials engineering and materials processing in manufacturing. The engineering properties of metals, polymers, semiconductors, ceramics and composites are correlated with the internal structure of the materials and the service conditions. CourseProfile (ATLAS)
MATSCIE 242. Physics of MaterialsPrerequisite: Physics 240 and preceded or accompanied by Math 216. (4 credits)Basic principles of modern physics and quantum mechanics as pertain to solid state physics and the physical behavior of materials on the nanometer scale. Applications to solid state and nano-structured materials will be emphasized including band structure, bonding and magnetic, optical and electronic response. CourseProfile (ATLAS)
MATSCIE 250. Principles of Engineering MaterialsPrerequisite: Chem 130 or Chem 210. (4 credits)Introductory course to engineering materials. Properties (mechanical, thermal and electrical) of metals, polymers, ceramics and electronic materials. Correlation of these properties with (1) their internal structures (atomic, molecular, crystalline, micro- and macro-), (2) service conditions (mechanical, thermal, chemical, electrical, magnetic and radiation), and (3) processing. CourseProfile (ATLAS)
MATSCIE 400. Electronic, Magnetic and Optical Materials for Modern Device TechnologyPrerequisites: MATSCIE 242 and either MATSCIE 220 or 250 or equivalents. (3 credits)Application of solid-state phenomena in engineering structures such as microelectronic, magnetic and optical devices. Review of quantum mechanical descriptions of crystalline solids. Microelectronic, magnetic and optical properties of devices, fabrication and process methods. CourseProfile (ATLAS)
MATSCIE 410 (BIOMEDE 410). Design and Applications of BiomaterialsPrerequisite: MATSCIE 220 or 250 or permission of instructor. (3 credits)Biomaterials and their physiological interactions. Materials used in medicine/ dentistry: metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, resorbable smart, natural materials. Material response/degradation: mechanical breakdown, corrosion, dissolution, leaching, chemical degradation, wear. Host responses: foreign body reactions, inflammation, wound healing, carcinogenicity, immunogenicity, cytotoxicity, infection, local/systemic effects. CourseProfile (ATLAS) 041b061a72